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Dugongs, sea cows, and manatees

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West Indian manatee cow and calf
Classification after McKenna & Bell 1997.
Containing group: Eutheria

Other Names for Sirenia


Berta, A. and J. L. Sumich. 1999. Marine Mammals: Evolutionary Biology. Academic Press, New York.

Dietz, T. 1992. The Call of the Siren. Manatees and Dugongs. Fulcrum Publishing, Golden, Colorado.

Domning, D. P. 1990. Fossil sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean Region. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 10:361-371.

Domning, D. P. 1994. A phylogenetic analysis of the Sirenia. In A. Berta and T.A. Demeréré (Editors), Contributions in Marine Mammal Paleontology Honoring Frank C. Whitmore, Jr. Proceedings San Diego Society of Natural History, 29, pp. 177-189.

Domning, D. P. 1996. Bibliography and index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 80. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

McKenna, M. C. and S. K. Bell. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York.

Nowak, R.M. 1999. Order Sirenia. Pages 982-992 in: Walker's Mammals of the World. Sixth Edition. Volume II. (R. M. Nowak). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Ozawa, T., S. Hayashi, and V.M. Mikhelson. 1997. Phylogenetic position of mammoth and Steller's sea cow within Tethytheria demonstrated by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution 44:406-413.

Rainey, W. E., J. M. Lowenstein, V. M. Sarich, and D. M. Magor. 1984. Sirenian molecular systematics including the extinct Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas). Naturwissenschaften 71:586-588.

Ripple, J. 1999. Manatees and Dugongs of the World. Voyageur Press, Stillwater, MN.

Savage, J. G., D. P. Domning, and J. G. M. Thewissen. 1994. Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean Region. V. The most primitive known sirenian, Prorastomus sirenoides Owen, 1855. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 14:427-449.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
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West Indian manatee cow and calf
Scientific Name Trichechus manatus
Location Florida
Comments West Indian manatee
Creator Galen Rathbun
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Life Cycle Stage cow and calf
Source Collection U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Online Digital Media Library
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Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2000. Sirenia. Dugongs, sea cows, and manatees. Version 01 January 2000 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Sirenia/15984/2000.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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